Older hydraulic systems featured lower operating pressures, simple gear pumps and lever operated directional valves. Particle contaminants may have caused some degradation, but this seldom caused intermittent or catastrophic failure.
Modern hydraulic systems feature valves with close tolerances between parts, and variable current solenoids that use minimal force.
This means that particle contaminants can easily interfere with normal operations.
For example, particle contamination can cause a number of issues with a modern directional control valve.
There are 5 common types of particle contamination.
There are two other types of contamination, microorganisms and carbon, but they are pretty rare.
Metal slivers can enter a system in a number of different ways.
When hose is cut and not properly cleaned before crimping and sending to work.
Leftover filings from the drilling and cutting of the reservoir.
Wear metals from all moving parts in contact with other surfaces.
This is especially common in gear pumps.
Cavitation causing pitting in pumps.
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